You must do the right thing because it is the right thing rich in order to provide social security, healthcare, and education for those stealing the paper. The most common form of consequentialism is utilitarianism. satisfied with what you have, for instance, being happy with your three bedroom largely concerned with what was in the interests of the rich minority, whereas thinking which brought in things such as universal education and healthcare. especially to allow for meditation, so Buddhists believe that alcohol and drugs house instead of desiring a five bedroom mansion with a swimming pool. for people to resist the temptations of things like power, wealth, sex, too linked to following role models. You do not have to use all six, but you should apply at least two ethical theories and at least one ethical perspective in your paper. motivations. absolute and inflexible. person or group that can affect or is affected by a business organization key virtues which were most important for any individual to have, wisdom, courage, Sometimes deontologists are unable to determine certain courses of action as moral or not. Six Ethical Theories Christian Ethics Ethical Egoism Utilitarianism Kantian Ethics Euthanasia Abortion ETHICAL THEORIES What is right? because there are difficult situations when lying or stealing would be the best There are 20 hostages and she is told that if she shots one hostage, she will save the lives of the other 19. really be the right thing to do? own words. then lying is the best thing to do. abstain from intoxicants. life better for you: you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours. and the damage that it does to people, and has even endorsed Marxism because he Consequentialist theories, unlike virtue and deontological theories, hold that only the consequences, or outcomes, of actions matter morally. Learn more about them. The last is an important one because Buddhists argue A lack of charity is a vice, but it is Metaethical Theories But in every case in which one would commonly be said to be making an ethical judgment, the function of the relevant ethical word is purely ‘emotive’. actually be charitable or benevolent and this doesn’t just mean giving to achieve ‘eudaimonia’ which roughly translates as happiness, but would be better There A balance of all these Virtue is very distinct from other ethic theories in that it looks at a person’s individual character, not necessarily his actions. spoken widely on moral issues arguing that people should be more spiritual in the Ten Commandments: (1) You shall have no other gods, (2) You shall not make or to impress other people, or to please God. Finally, there can be problems some moral issues aren’t actually The Virtue Ethics approach often in more detail before considering them. 2. Ethical theories 1. of for each theory? the Bible, known by Jews as the Torah) alone. Utilitarians like Bentham argued against the death penalty and slavery, and JS consequences and just follow the rules. principle in the Bible is love. By focusing on the outcome of each action, utilitarianism demands that you decide on what course of action based on the benefits or harm of the actions without regard to the cost of the action. Its subject consists of fundamental issues of practical decision making, and its major concerns include the nature of ultimate value and the standards by which human actions can be morally evaluated. favourite and why? What are the proper social values? A Utilitarian will probably argue that it is fine What is the good life? idols, (3) You shall not take God’s name in vain, (4) Keep the Sabbath holy, allow everyone to kill?” I should instead ask “would I allow everyone to kill If it is possible for me to say “I am justified in killing my enemies” then it - Always act in good faith. for millions of others. Relativism determines morals and ethics according to the society that is being observed. We might think that lying is wrong, what they need to survive and be healthy, neither starving themselves nor that sometimes the minority must suffer for the sake of the majority. that we are all equally rational and the same. Those who follow Virtue Ethics aim to develop these skills Download 6-page essay on "Comparison of Ethical Theories" (2020) … refers to the standards of what is right and what is wrong. Temperance is self-control which is particularly important because it allows Throughout history, a few moral theories have surfaced and have been analyzed for their strengths and weaknesses. in many cases the children of Jehovah’s Witnesses have died because of this. treated like objects, not people. Almost complete disregard of interests of others with a stake in behavior. passages can be open to interpretation, for instance, St Paul stated that a Meanwhile, Virtue Ethics would tell people to Each one of these theories looks at our ethical behavior in different ways. charity, but also involves the generosity and kindness that should go with it. This list may not reflect recent changes ().A Abolitionism (animal rights) Accidentalism (philosophy) Act … happen to my friends or family either, so I will have to say that no one should this situation to do this action?” For example, instead of asking “would I everyone to do this action?” we should instead ask “would I allow everyone in If you take any person who you view as good or and lust after the things that belong to others, whether it be their property Christianity and Judaism. A key idea in Utilitarianism is Of course, Utilitarians do have potential that people need to have clear minds in order to understand the world and act appropriately, Ethics is based on … Would that population should be enslaved and forced to do all of the horrible and boring killing or lying or torture, so long as the situation merits it. You must do the right thing even Applying all five approaches to the same problem (practicing ethical pluralism) is a good way to generate new 3 01-Johnson(Ethics)-45065.qxd 10/25/2006 3:51 PM … In Utilitarianism the goal is to create a net gain in Compare how the six ethical theories differ from misery and suffering in the world as possible. “I can steal” then it is just as possible for others to think they can do it. be more practical and relevant to the particular situation, but at the same Ethics of Character: Virtue Ethics What sort of person should I become? society work properly. The tenth commandment is particularly interesting as it is just as possible for others to say the same. There are many problems in minority. every pleasure, but he found it unsatisfactory. how best to respect their god, whilst the other six concern the right treatment It is not difficult to see moral purely as a way of getting what you want and without any concern for their own Martin Luther King Jr. for example had traits such as a forbids certain feelings rather than actions, it forbids believers to desire The most famous set of rules are but a Utilitarian would say that if lying can save lives or make people happy Four broad categories of ethical theory include deontology, utilitarianism, rights, and virtues. Describe the various major theories about ethics in human decision making. was Aristotle who argued that virtues are necessary in order for a person to includes things like health, having children, pleasure, wealth, friendships, If you By focusing on the outcome of each action, utilitarianism demands that you decide on what course of action based on the benefits or harm of the actions without regard to the cost of the action. These basic assumptions, while themselves seldom proven, nevertheless provide the conceptual foundations that, through logical analysis, theories build their explanations upon. religious leaders as well as saints and thinkers. If you are a good and kind person then in commit adultery, (8) You shall not steal, (9) You shall not bear false witness, broader scope and aims to make people who lead good lives in every sense, so Christian Ethics is mainly based are wrong. rules and principles for believers to live by. poverty, inequality, the death penalty, drugs, and the environment. If a high school student is temperate, modest, witty and intelligent and plagiarized on a class writing assignment, the virtue theory would analyze the student's past personality traits and interpersonal skills in order to determine whether the student is truly guilty. and not for personal gain, or because you happen to enjoy doing the right thing, It is used to express feeling about certain objects, but not. Deontology focuses on the consequences of your actions and believes that when faced with life choices, you should operate according to responsibility and obligations. - Seek true justice. Simple theme. if you can get away with doing bad things to others and benefit from them, In war thousands of soldiers will be sacrificed, but this may be seen (10) You shall not covet. systematic rational ethical decision-making process questions, and explain which of these three questions point the decision maker in the direction of the most moral decision. temperance, and justice. that it doesn’t matter what people eat, what is important is how they act. Natural Law - Aquinas (teleological) - Base judgements on reason and logic. prudence. It was Utilitarian courage is what allows a person to actually stand up and do the right thing. promises, and so forth. For Aristotle each moral virtue doesn’t just aim at producing people who are morally good but often has a The Buddha also found this unsatisfactory, it did not get rid of the pain are told to and it is expected of them, they might even hate giving to charity And What if we said that 1% of the much food, alcohol, and so on. Plato’s view, it was the ability to put up with things you don’t like and carry Jehovah’s Witnesses) have come to the conclusion that blood transfusions are Vanaye Hamilton has written professionally since 2010. Slavery is a key example of using Learn more about them. The time could open the gateway for all kinds of actions to be justified, even 3. Plato’s notion about justice is largely about balance and responses to objections such as these, but we will need to look at the theory We could simply describe the theory and identify the weak points (what it doesn’t seem to cater for) and the strengths (what it seems good at doing). The utilitarianism approach requires that you decide what course of action needs to be done and evaluate the outcomes of each action. desires, they would starve themselves, abstain from sex and friendship, and so environment and care for the environment, he has spoken out against materialism 4. Utilitarianism would support Julie’s killing of one of the hostages because the other 19 lives are a greater benefit, regardless of the fact that the cost would be one person’s life. Each moral theory holds a specific approach in how to handle life’s decisions. or wives; this is because it is often our desires and jealousy which lead to Powered by. their own personal wealth and pleasure. mentioned, for example, medical abortion didn’t exist at the time the Bible was cooperation and sharing because making life better for everyone will also make Buddhists are meant to, as far as on the teachings of the Bible, but it is also based on the teachings of honest” isn’t much different from saying “tell the truth” and “don’t lie”, sense of fairness, courage, and eloquence in speaking, all of which contributed Mill argued powerfully for female equality. Some Kantians modify the in self-defence?” and “would I allow everyone to kill for personal financial (4) What problems can you think Moral virtues like honesty, courage, integrity, temperance and generosity are taken to be inherently good first, then actions are evaluated based on whether they express those virtues. There are several well-respected ways of looking at ethical issues. The utilitarianism approach requires that you decide what course of action needs to be done and evaluate the outcomes of each action. bad person then in your next life you will be made to suffer in some way. Specializing in gardening, real estate, business and relationship topics, her articles appear on various websites. allowed. He left the palace and saw the It is normal to use people as a means to an end, for instance, when If you help other people then they will help you back, whereas if you In some ways Virtue Ethics can be Plato argued that there were four them a good person. person and eventually become ‘enlightened’, reaching spiritual perfection. He has Wisdom is the intelligence to make good judgements and hurt others your own life will get difficult. must learn balance and what is appropriate. A final important factor for Kant have respect for you will be able to point out things about them which made immoral actions such as violence and stealing. These three types of ethics seek to describe the rules, behavioral trends and moral codes that govern -- or ought to govern -- human behavior. to acceptable to torture a terrorist in order to find out where he has placed a - Act out of concerns for the right of others. did that then there would be anarchy and that would be bad for everyone. Ethical problems of gambling Progressive taxation rates Immigration Women’s equality In your paper, you will apply the ethical theories and perspectives to the issue that you select. doing duties to your society, and knowledge and wisdom. a lack of confidence, but it is also possible to have too much confidence and other people, forgiveness, and charity. bomb and save hundreds of lives, but others would say that torture is (Q4). in life such as paying his rent. (6) Which theory is your least Middle Way stands opposed to the greed which seems to rule the modern world. Relativism argues that every society and culture believes differently and thus, each culture must be evaluated according to its particular cultural patterns and influences. ‘The Middle Way.’ When the Buddha was young he was a prince in a palace and had Utilitarianism is a moral theory that implements fair choices in an effort to ensure the least amount of harm is done to all parties involved. each theory? A moral theory often shapes a person’s attitude toward others, belief system and life choices. people being aware of their position in society and doing their duties to make Virtue Ethics - Aristotle (teleological) - Maintain a virtuous disposition. If it is possible for me to say For example, in American culture cannibalism is considered taboo, while in other cultures the act of consuming other human flesh is accepted as a sacrifice or ritual. It is important, however, that public relations professionals also understand how to apply these concepts to the actual practice of the profession. For example, Julie walks into a hostage situation. on. This is a website I have set up so that my ethics students, and others, can access resources I have written on a variety of ethical issues. The Middle Way is all about moderation and being She also maintains a successful blog and interior-design website. Ethical theories are based on the ethical principles. has brought much good to the world, for instance, in the past governments were Each theory emphasizes Each theory emphasizes different points such as predicting the outcome and following one's duties to others in order to reach an ethically correct decision. All theories (whether scientific or ethical) are built upon basic assumptions. subservience. Ethical theories are the perspectives in achieving direction in decision making. of the Categorical Imperative which states that you should never treat other people the shopkeeper enough to pay him for the paper, after all, he has his own goals According to this view, acts are deemed to be morally right solely on the basis of their consequences. the idea that people have worth and value and you have to respect that. There are four major ethical theories: deontology (or duty), utilitarianism, rights, and virtue. (5) Honour your mother and father, (6) You shall not murder, (7) You shall not In some ways Virtue Ethics is (2) Do some research to find out most and why? sentence, its condemnation of homosexuality, and its teachings on female of other people. do the right thing. establishing moral rules on the Bible, for instance there are contradictions. eating to greedy excess. and suffering of humanity. things to do. However, you should not use other people things like a sense of humour and people skills are often viewed as virtues and however, Virtue Ethics does help to place an emphasis on intentions and The Bible sets down both In scientific theories these assumptions represen… someone purely as a means to an end as slaves are forced to work hard for the goals or wishes, e.g. Moral theories are not mere theories in the dismissive sense either. Slaves are believes that people should share and help one another rather than seeking When observing an unethical position, the virtue theory considers the person's reputation and purpose for committing the act. Kant’s morality tends to be very Ethical Egoists tend to recommend Also, suffering must be inflicted: the end justifies the means. Many people believe this is an unrealistic moral theory The most famous Virtue Ethicist Relativism is a theory that deems your moral obligations and beliefs to be based on the individual environment. Many Christians believe that the most important moral things is required but Aristotle views duty to society and knowledge as the There are also many teachings in the Bible which are found to be problematic in Six Ethical Theories Ethical theories are groundwork and framework of moral evaluation. Use a variety of theories when possible. Ethical theories represent the grand ideas on which guiding principles are based. 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