[98] Similarly, Maria Theresa had reached the limit of her resources. In August 1757, the French also captured Fort William Henry on Lake George. At the same time, he refused to evacuate Saxony until its elector had renounced any claim to reparation. Eighteenth-century European armies were built around units of massed infantry armed with smoothbore flintlock muskets and bayonets. The French abandoned the city and French Canadians led by the Chevalier de Levis staged a counteroffensive on the Plains of Abraham in the spring of 1760, with initial success at the Battle of Sainte-Foy. [33] They sought to offset the disadvantage of this in Europe by allying themselves with one or more continental powers whose interests were antithetical to those of their enemies, particularly France. The Seven Years’ War therefore laid the bicultural foundations of modern Canada. Great Britain planned a "descent" (an amphibious demonstration or raid) on Rochefort, a joint operation to overrun the town and burn shipping in the Charente. Hence, Austria's prestige was restored in great part and the empire secured its position as a major player in the European system. Despite the debatable strategic success and the operational failure of the descent on Rochefort, William Pitt—who saw purpose in this type of asymmetric enterprise—prepared to continue such operations. defensive and as far from Canadian settlements as possible. The exchanges suited the British as well, as their own Caribbean islands already supplied ample sugar, and, with the acquisition of New France and Florida, they now controlled all of North America east of the Mississippi. Unbeknownst to his foreign minister, Louis had established a network of agents throughout Europe with the goal of pursuing personal political objectives that were often at odds with France's publicly stated policies. [26], The Seven Years' War, like most European wars of the eighteenth century, was fought as a so-called cabinet war in which disciplined regular armies were equipped and supplied by the state to conduct warfare on behalf of the sovereign's interests. France was deprived of many of its colonies and had saddled itself with heavy war debts that its inefficient financial system could barely handle. Native Americans of the Laurentian valley—the Algonquin, the Abenaki, the Huron, and others, were allied with the French. The Seven Years War, a global conflict known in America as the French and Indian War, officially began when England declared war on France. [21] In July British Major General Edward Braddock led about 2,000 army troops and provincial militia on an expedition to retake Fort Duquesne, but the expedition ended in disastrous defeat. On 18 April 1757, Frederick II again took the initiative by marching into the Kingdom of Bohemia, hoping to inflict a decisive defeat on Austrian forces. It also defeated The loss of Kolberg cost Prussia its last port on the Baltic Sea. Great Britain lost Menorca in the Mediterranean to the French in 1756 but captured the French colonies in Senegal in 1758. At the same time, his Brunswick allies captured the key town of Göttingen and compounded this by taking Cassel. The naval squadron and transports for the expedition were commanded by Richard Howe. The next month Britain declared war. The arrival of British reinforcements stalled a further Spanish advance, and in the Battle of Valencia de Alcántara British-Portuguese forces overran a major Spanish supply base. Austria, particularly Kaunitz, used this situation to their utmost advantage. the British navy tried to intercept and capture the French convoy, but captured only two ships. French subsidies were no longer provided. The French aim was to use a small army, aided by the Canadians and Aboriginal allies, to tie down these large British forces in the interior, thereby sparing more valuable colonies from attack. [31] The plan was to fight to the end of hostilities and then, in treaty negotiations, to trade territorial acquisitions in Europe to regain lost overseas possessions (as had happened in, e.g., the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1632)). (Both This led indirectly to the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775, It burned shipping in the harbor, roughly 80 French privateers and merchantmen, as well as four warships which were under construction. The war began in Southern India but spread into Bengal, where British forces under Robert Clive recaptured Calcutta from the Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah, a French ally, and ousted him from his throne at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. In North America, imperial rivals Britain and France struggled for supremacy. [74], By this point Frederick was increasingly concerned by the Russian advance from the east and marched to counter it. [62] However, in November and December 1757, the whole situation in Germany was reversed. [107] French naval deployments in 1757 also successfully defended the key Fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island called Ile du Roi by the French, securing the seaward approaches to Quebec.[108]. The Seven Years' War pitted the alliance of Britain, Prussia and Hanover against the alliance of France, Austria, Sweden, Saxony, Russia, and eventually Spain. [145] The Act protected Catholic religion and French language, which enraged the Americans, but the Québécois remained loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolution and did not rebel. Swedish historiography uses the name Pommerska kriget (The Pomeranian War), as the Sweden–Prussia conflict between 1757 and 1762 was limited to Pomerania in northern central Germany. Cameron (1969), Sir J.S. Hence, she dedicated the next two decades to the consolidation of her administration. The British captured Senegal with ease in May 1758 and brought home large amounts of captured goods. A successful defence of Canada depended upon the arrival of supplies and reinforcements from Europe, carried up the St. Lawrence River. The war was successful for Great Britain, which gained the bulk of New France in North America, Spanish Florida, some individual Caribbean islands in the West Indies, the colony of Senegal on the West African coast, and superiority over the French trading outposts on the Indian subcontinent. The Seven Years’ War therefore laid the bicultural foundations of modern Canada. It marked the end of his final attempt to launch a major invasion of Austrian territory. The Seven Years' War begins as Great Britain declares war on France expanding the North American conflict to Europe, Africa, Asia and South America. [59] As it was, the requirement that the Austrian quartermaster's department supply both the Austrian and Russian armies proved beyond its capacity, and in practice, the Russians received little in the way of supplies from the Austrians. At the same time, Austria ended centuries of conflict by allying with France, along with Saxony, Sweden, and Russia. By 1759, war raged in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and the Caribbean, and Quebec was under attack by a British fleet and army. [47] The Austrians had succeeded in partially occupying Silesia and, more importantly, denying Frederick winter quarters in Bohemia. The Americans could not cope with these attacks and Britain was forced to send over 20,000 troops to the colonies and commit most of its navy to blockading In 1756, the four greatest powers "switched partners" so that Great Britain and Prussia were allied against France and Austria. The Seven Years' War was perhaps the first global war, taking place almost 160 years before World War I, known as the Great War before the outbreak of World War II, and globally influenced many later major events. The War of the Austrian Succession had seen the belligerents aligned on a time-honoured basis. The war also brought to an end the "Old System" of alliances in Europe,[146] In the years after the war, under the direction of Lord Sandwich, the British attempted to re-establish this system. The British were one side and the French and Indian alliance the other. allies) defeated several British attacks and captured a number of British forts. Still, the loss of Berlin to the Russians and Austrians was a great blow to Frederick's prestige as many pointed out that the Prussians had no hope of occupying temporarily or otherwise St. Petersburg or Vienna. The materials of both sides had been largely consumed. The French under the Marquis de Montcalm anticipated a British assault to the east of Quebec so he ordered his soldiers to fortify the region of Beauport. of supplies for the western posts. [79] Frederick lost much of his artillery but retreated in good order, helped by dense woods. which would further influence Canadian identity and boundaries, including the influx of Loyalists and the creation of Upper Canada and New Brunswick. 56-58, Burkholder, Suzanne Hiles, " Seven Years' War" in, James L.A. Webb Jr, "The mid-eighteenth century gum Arabic trade and the British conquest of Saint-Louis du Senegal, 1758.". France also saw the dismemberment of Prussia as threatening to the stability of Central Europe. Naples-Sicily, and Savoy, although sided with the Franco-Spanish alliance, declined to join the coalition under fear of British naval power. Consequently, when the American War of Independence turned into a global war between 1778 and 1783, Britain found itself opposed by a strong coalition of European powers, and lacking any substantial ally. One was mainly between Britain and France. France, which was heavily committed to fighting on the European continent, had few resources to spare for its colonies. [25] Strategic warfare in this period centred around control of key fortifications positioned so as to command the surrounding regions and roads, with lengthy sieges a common feature of armed conflict. First, he would seize Saxony and eliminate it as a threat to Prussia, then use the Saxon army and treasury to aid the Prussian war effort. In 1756 and 1757 the French captured forts Oswego[105] and William Henry from the British. Prussia had retaken nearly all of Silesia from the Austrians after Frederick's narrow victory over Daun at the Battle of Burkersdorf. The Hanoverians were victorious over the French at the Battle of Warburg, their continued success preventing France from sending troops to aid the Austrians against Prussia in the east. and a four-pronged attack would be launched against Niagara, Fort Beauséjour on the border The Seven Years' WarAn illustrated overview of the Seven Years’ War from the Canadian War Museum website. His manpower had dramatically decreased, and he had lost so many effective officers and generals that an offensive against Dresden seemed impossible. [citation needed], In India, the British retained the Northern Circars, but returned all the French trading ports. Thirdly, he wanted to invade Moravia from Silesia, seize the fortress at Olmütz, and advance on Vienna to force an end to the war.[44]. Vice-Admiral Edward Boscawen and a squadron of He had melted and coined most of the church silver, had ransacked the palaces of his kingdom and coined that silver, and reduced his purchasing power by mixing it with copper. The tardiness of Bligh in moving his forces allowed a French force of 10,000 from Brest to catch up with him and open fire on the reembarkation troops. [136] Prussia's lands and population were devastated, though Frederick's extensive agrarian reforms and encouragement of immigration soon solved both these problems. An attack on Havre de Grace was called off, and the fleet sailed on to Cherbourg; the weather being bad and provisions low, that too was abandoned, and the expedition returned having damaged French privateering and provided further strategic demonstration against the French coast. Faced with the choice of regaining either New France or its Caribbean island colonies of Guadeloupe and Martinique, France chose the latter to retain these lucrative sources of sugar,[131] writing off New France as an unproductive, costly territory. [134], Bute's settlement with France was mild compared with what Pitt's would have been. Negotiations had started there on 31 December 1762. Worsening weather forced the two armies to separate: the ships sailed for the safer anchorage of St. [141] Moreover, the Indians feared that with the coming of British rule might lead to white settlers displacing them off their land, whereas it was known that the French had only come as fur traders. When at last the battle was joined, the greatly superior mobility of the Prussians, with the brilliant cavalry leadership of Friedrich Wilhelm, Freiherr (baron) von Seydlitz won the day. The Seven Years' War pitted the alliance of Britain, Prussia and Hanover against the alliance of France, Austria, Sweden, Saxony, Russia, and eventually Spain. This ended the war in central Europe. [148], Media related to Seven Years' War at Wikimedia Commons, This article is about the European mid-18th-century war. However, Frederick missed an opportunity to completely destroy the Austrian army at Leuthen; although depleted, it escaped back into Bohemia. Britain's main weapon was the Royal Navy, which could control the seas and bring as many invasion troops as were needed. [139] Still, the fact that the Russians proved capable of defeating in battle the army of a "first-rate" European power on its own soil despite the often indifferent quality of their generals improved Russia's standing in Europe. Spain lost control of Florida to Great Britain, but it received from the French the Île d'Orléans and all of the former French holdings west of the Mississippi River. Meanwhile, after the battle of Kunersdorf, the Russian army was mostly inactive due mostly to their tenuous supply lines. on Lake Champlain (in what is now New York state). When the Prussian king, Frederick, was marching south with his powerful armies, the Hungarian general unexpectedly swung his force of 5,000, mostly hussars, around the Prussians and occupied part of their capital, Berlin, for one night. From archive.org. The 1763 Treaty of Hubertusburg ended the war between Saxony, Austria and Prussia. [35][36]:64–66 The British pursued a dual strategy – naval blockade and bombardment of enemy ports, and rapid movement of troops by sea. [128], In the south, although the French captured Cuddalore, their siege of Madras failed, while the British commander Sir Eyre Coote decisively defeated the Comte de Lally at the Battle of Wandiwash in 1760 and overran the French territory of the Northern Circars. 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